Scott Breuninger



Department of History, University of South Dakota


Sociability and Cosmopolitanism: Social Bonds on the Fringes of the Enlightenment, ed. with David Burrow (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011)

Recovering Bishop Berkeley: Virtue and Society in the Anglo-Irish Context (New York: Palgrave, 2010)

"Planting an Asylum for Religion: Berkeley's Bermuda Scheme and the Transmission of Virtue in the Eighteenth Century Atlantic World", Journal of Religious History 34 (2010):414-29

"A Panacea for the Nation: Berkeley's Tar Water and Irish Domestic Development", Etudes Irlandaises 34 (2010):29-41

"Irish Clergy and the Deist Controversy: Two Episodes in the Early British Enlightenment", Religion in the Age of Enlightenment 1 (2009):197-224

"Berkeley and Ireland: Who are the 'We' in 'We Irish think otherwise'?". In Jill Bradbury and David Valone (eds.), Anglo-Irish Identities 1571-1845 (Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 2008), pp. 104-125

"Rationality and Revolution: Rereading Berkeley's Sermons on Passive Obedience", New Hibernia Review 12 (2008):63-86

"'Social Gravity' and the Translatio Tradition in Early American Theories of Empire: The Case of Thomas Pownall", Southern Quarterly 43 (2006):70-108

Christine Desan



Leo Gottlieb Professor of Law, Harvard Law School


Co-founder of Harvard’s Program on the Study of Capitalism, an interdisciplinary project that brings together classes, resources, research funds, and advising aimed at exploring that topic.

Re-Theorizing Liquidity, ed. (University of Pennsylvania Press, forthcoming)

Making Money: Coin, Credit and the Coming of Capitalism Oxford University Press, 2014

Shorter works in collection

"Beyond Commodification: Contract and the Credit-Based World of Modern Capitalism". In Transformation of American Law II: Essays for Morton Horwitz (2010)

"Legislative Power" in The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (Stanley N. Katz ed., Oxford University Press, 2009)

"Contesting the Character of the Political Economy: Rights and Remedies in the Early Republic". In Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon (eds.), The House and the Senate in the 1790s: Petitioning, Lobbying, and Institutional Development (Ohio University Press, 2002)

"Contesting the Character of the Political Economy in the Early Republic: Rights and Remedies in Chisholm v. Georgia". In Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon (eds.), Perspectives on the History of Congress, 1789-1801 (Ohio University Press, 2002)

"Stephen G. Breyer". In Clare Cushman (ed.), The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995(Congressional Quarterly Books, 1995)

Journal articles

"Coin Reconsidered: The Political Alchemy of Commodity Money", Theoretical Inquiries in Law 11 (2010)

"From Blood to Profit: The Transformation of Value in the American Constitutional Tradition", Journal of Policy History 20 (2007)

"Money Talks: Listening to a History of Value," Common-Place 6:3 (April 1, 2006)

"The Market as a Matter of Money: Denaturalizing Economic Currency in American Constitutional History", Law and Social Inquiry 30 (2005)

"Out of the Past: Time and Movement in Making the Present", Unbound, A Journal of Legal Reconstruction 1 (2005)

"The Constitutional Commitment to Legislative Adjudication in the Early American Tradition", Harvard Law Review111 (1998)

"Remaking Constitutional Tradition at the Margin of the Empire: The Creation of Legislative Adjudication in Colonial New York", Law and History Review 16 (1998)

"Writing Constitutional History Beyond the Institutional/Ideological Divide", Law and History Review 16 (1998)

"Perfect Violence", Journal of Law and Religion 7 (1989)

Alan Downie

Chair, Session III


Goldsmiths College, University of London


A Political Biography of Henry Fielding (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2009)

Henry Fielding In Our Time: Papers Presented at the Tercentenary Conference. Editor (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008)

"Periodicals, the Book Trade and the 'Bourgeois Public Sphere'". Media History 14 (2008):261-274

Robert Harley and the Press: Propaganda and Public Opinion in the Age of Swift and Defoe (paperback reprint ed., Cambridge University Press, 2008)

"Marlowe, May 1593, and the 'Must-Have' Theory of Biography", Review of English Studies 58 (2007):245-267

"Who Says She's a Bourgeois Writer? Reconsidering the Social and Political Contexts of Jane Austen's Novels", Eighteenth-Century Studies 40/1 (2006):69-84

Religious and Didactic Writings of Daniel Defoe, Volume 6: The Poor Man's Plea (1698) and The Great Law of Subordination Consider'd (1724) Ed. (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2006)

Constructing Christopher Marlowe. Paperback edition. Ed. with J. T. Parnell (Cambridge University Press, 2006)

"Public and Private: The Myth of the Bourgeois Public Sphere". In Cynthia Wall (ed.), A Concise Companion to the Restoration and Eighteenth Century (Oxford, Malden, MA, and Carlton, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), 58-79

"Public Opinion and the Political Pamphlet". In John Richetti (ed.), The Cambridge History of English Literature, 1660-1780 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 549-571

"What if Delarivier Manley Did Not Write The Secret History of Queen Zarah?", The Library 7th series, 5 (2004):247-264

"How useful to eighteenth-century English studies is the paradigm of the 'bourgeois public sphere'?", Literature Compass 1 (2003):18C 022, 1-18

"'The Coffee Hessy spilt' and Other Issues in Swift's Biography". In Herman J. Real and Helgard Stöver-Leidig (eds.), Reading Swift: Papers from The Fourth Münster Symposium on Jonathan Swift (Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2003), 65-75

"The Political Significance of Gulliver's Travels". In Albert J. Rivero (ed.), Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels: A Norton Critical Edition (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Co., 2002), 334-352

Constructing Christopher Marlowe. Ed. with J.T. Parnell (Cambridge University Press, 2000)

"The Making of the English Novel", Eighteenth-Century Fiction 9.3 (1997):249-266

To Settle the Succession of the State: Literature and Politics, 1678-1750 (Macmillan, 1994)

Robert Harley and the press: propaganda and public opinion in the age of Swift and Defoe (Cambridge University Press, 1979)

Christopher Fauske

Session II, Why Cato?

Chair, Session VI


This paper explores how the prominence of the ‘Cato’ meme illuminates particular aspects of early eighteenth-century English political discourse. 'Cato' became a public figure after such works as Sir William Temple’s ‘On Ancient and Modern Learning’ and Jonathan Swift’s Battle of the Books brought the ‘ancients vs. moderns’ debate to a general audience. The meme reached its zenith in the idealization of Joseph Addison’s Cato and culminated in John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon’s Cato’s Letters. The adoption as a public pseudonym of a moral authority and suicide who had failed in his time to prevent a perceived social decline indicates the depth of the rupture identified by the new nostalgics. Their work identifies a profound social breach stressed by writers for whom the Restoration was a disappointment, James II ghastly, William ineffectual, and Anne too little too late. As the death of Anne approached and the new constitutional order appeared irrevocable, ‘Cato’ served as an ideal pseudonym, allowing for an oppositional stance that was neither Jacobite nor republican. ‘Cato’ in the early eighteenth century was as cognizant of his end as had been his original namesake.


Communications Department, Salem State University, Salem, MA


"Telescopes Microscopes and the Problem of Evil." Age of Enlightenment 5 (2014):forthcoming

"An archbishop, a dean, God, and the Church of Ireland". In Kirsten Juhas, Hermann J. Real, and Sandra Simon (eds.), Reading Swift: Papers from the Sixth Münster Symposium on Jonathan Swift (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2013), pp. 245-64

A Political Biography of William King (London: Chatto and Pickering, 2011).

"A System Illusory and Immoral: Jonathan Swift and the Emergence of the Modern Economic Polity". In Robert Balfour (ed.), Speculation and Displacement (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 49-66.

"On Being Orthodox: The Sermons of Laurence Sterne and the Church of England Context." In W. B. Gerard (ed.), Divine Rhetoric: Essays on the Sermons of Laurence Sterne. (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2010), pp. 45-62.

"John Frederick MacNeice". In James McGuire et al. (eds), Dictionary of Irish Biography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Money, Power, and Print: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Financial Revolution in the British Isles. Ed. with Charles Ivar McGrath (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008)

"Misunderstanding What Swift Misunderstood or, the Economy of a Province". In Chris Fauske and C. Ivar McGrath (eds.), Money, Power, and Print: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Financial Revolution in the British Isles(Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008), pp. 135-56

Skipper Worse. Translated from the Norwegian of Alexander Kielland. Ed. Jeff Voccola (New York: Cross-Cultural Communications, 2007)

"Side by Side in a Small Country": Bishop John Frederick MacNeice and Ireland (Keady, Northern Ireland: Church of Ireland Historical Society, 2005)

An Uncomfortable Authority: Maria Edgeworth and Her Contexts. Ed. with Heidi Kaufman (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2004)

Archbishop William King and the Anglican Irish Context. Ed. (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003)

Jonathan Swift and the Church of Ireland, 1710-24 (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2002)

Take Charge of Your Writing: the Power of Self-assessment. With David Daniel, Peter Galeno and Debbie Mael (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000)

"Some Other Culture: Maori Literature as a Unifying Force in a Multicultural Classroom", Teaching English in the Two-Year College 26:1 (Sept. 1998):18-24

"Boyle, John (Orrery and Cork, Earl of)". In Robert Hogan (ed.), Dictionary of Irish Literature (Greenwood, Ct: Greenwood Press, 1996)

"A Life Merely Glimpsed: Louis MacNeice at the End of the Anglo-Irish Tradition". In Tjebbe Westendorp and Jane Mallinson (eds.), Politics and the Rhetoric of Poetry: Perspectives on Modern Anglo-Irish Poetry (Amsterdam, Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1995), 181-98

"A Life Merely Glimpsed: Louis MacNeice at the End of the Anglo-Irish Tradition", Canadian Journal of Irish Studies 20.1 (Summer 1994):17-29

"A Matter of Dates: Yeats, Starkie, and The Silver Tassie", Notes and Queries 235 (Dec. 1990):439-41

Farley Grubb

Chair, Session I


Economics Department, University of Delaware; and NBER Research Associate


"State Redemption of the Continental Dollar, 1779-90". William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser. 69.1 (Jan. 2012):147-180

"The Distribution of Congressional Spending During the American Revolution, 1775-1780: The Problem of Geographic Balance". In Stephen Conway and Rafael Torres Sánchez (eds.), The Spending of the States—Military Expenditure During the Long Eighteenth Century: Patterns, Organisations, and Consequences, 1650-1815 (Saabrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller GmbH & Co. KG, 2011), pp. 257-284

German Immigration and Servitude in America, 1709-1920. New York: Routledge, 2011

"Testing for the Economic Impact of the U.S. Constitution: Purchasing Power Parity across the Colonies Versus across the States, 1748-1811". Journal of Economic History 70.1 (Mar. 2010):118-145

"U.S. Land Policy: Founding Choices and Outcomes, 1781-1802". In Douglas A. Irwin and Richard Sylla (eds.), Founding Choices (Chicago: University of Chicago Press and NBER, 2010)

"Money Supply in the American Colonies". In Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume (eds.), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

"The Continental Dollar: How Much Was Really Issued?" Journal of Economic History 68 (2008):283-91

"The Spoils of War: U.S. Federal Government Finance in the Aftermath of the War for Independence, 1784-1802". In R. Torres Sanchez (ed.), War, State and Development: Fiscal-Military States in the Eighteenth Century(EUNSA, 2007), pp. 133-56

"The Net Worth of the U.S. Federal Government, 1784-1802", American Economic Review--Papers and Proceedings 97 (2007):280-84

"The Constitutional Creation of a Common Currency in the U.S. Monetary Stabilization versus Merchant Rent Seeking". In L. Jonung and J. Nautz (eds.), Conflict Potentials in Monetary Unions (Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007), pp. 19-50

Benjamin Franklin and the Birth of a Paper Money Economy. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, 2006

"Benjamin Franklin and Colonial Money: A Reply to Michener and Wright--Yet Again". Econ Journal Watch 3 (2006):484-510

"The U.S. Constitution and Monetary Powers: An Analysis of the 1787 Constitutional Convention and the Constitutional Transformation of the U.S. Monetary System". Financial History Review 13 (2006):43-71

"Theory, Evidence, and Belief--the Colonial Money Puzzle Revisited: Reply to Michener and Wright". Econ Journal Watch 3 (2006):45-72

"State 'Currencies' and the Transition to the U.S. Dollar: Reply--Including a New View from Canada". American Economic Review 95 (2005): 1341-48

"The Circulating Medium of Exchange in Colonial Pennsylvania, 1729-1775: New Estimates of Monetary Composition, Performance, and Economic Growth". Explorations in Economic History 41 (2004):329-60

"Creating the U.S.-Dollar Currency Union, 1748-1811: A Quest for Monetary Stability or a Usurpation of State Sovereignty for Personal Gain?". American Economic Review 93 (2003): 1778-98

James Hartley

Chair, Session IV


Department of Economics, Mount Holyoke College


"Shake Your Chains to Earth Like Dew: Shelley and the Industrial Revolution". In Joseph Pearce (ed.), The Romantic Poets, Volume II (Fort Collins, Colorado: Ignatius Press, forthcoming)

"Supporting Robbers: The Economic Conflict in Julius Caesar". In Joseph Pearce (ed.), Julius Caesar: Ignatius Critical Edition (Fort Collins, Colorado: Ignatius Press, forthcoming)

"For Craft is All, Whoso That Do it Can: Merchants and Morals in The Canterbury Tales". In David Williams (ed.) The Canterbury Tales: Ignatius Critical Edition (Fort Collins, Colorado: Ignatius Press, forthcoming)

"Breeding Barren Metal: Usury in The Merchant of Venice". In Joseph Pearce (ed.), The Merchant of Venice: Ignatius Critical Edition (Fort Collins, Colorado: Ignatius Press, 2009), pp. 201-216

Mary Lyon: Documents and Writings (ed.). South Hadley: Doorlight Publications, 2008

"Representative Agent". In William Darity et al. (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, 2008), pp. 173-74

"The Chameleon Daniel Defoe: Public Writing in the Age Before Economic Theory". In Chris Fauske and Ivar McGrath (eds.), Money, Power and Prose: Interdisciplinary Studies of the Financial Revolution in the British Isles, 1688-1756 (University of Delaware Press, 2008), pp. 26-50

"Kydland and Prescott's Nobel Prize: The Methodology of Time Consistency and Real Business Cycle Models", Review of Political Economy 18.1 (January 2006):1-28

"Should American Studies Study Itself?", Academic Questions 17.2 (Spring 2004):33-44

"Modigliani's Expectations", Eastern Economic Journal 30.3 (Summer 2004):429-40

"Mutual Deposit Insurance: Other Lessons from the Record", The Independent Review 6.2 (Fall 2001):235-52

"The Great Books and Economics", Journal of Economic Education 32.2 (Spring 2001):147-59

"Real Myths and a Monetary Fact", Applied Economics 31 (1999):1325-29

Real Business Cycles: a Reader (ed. with Kevin D. Hoover and Kevin D. Salyer). London: Routledge, 1998

The Representative Agent in Macroeconomics. London: Routledge, 1997

"The Limits of Business Cycle Research: Assessing the Real Business Cycle Model" (with Kevin D. Hoover and Kevin D. Salyer), Oxford Review of Economic Policy 13.3 (1997):34-54

"The Origins of the Representative Agent", Journal of Economic Perspectives 10.2 (Spring 1996):169-77

Richard Kleer



Both Horsefield and Dickson devoted considerable attention to the monetary aspects of Exchequer bills – in particular their character as a kind of fractional-reserve bank note. But they did so only for the bills’ first introduction in 1696-97. Horsefield believed their second incarnation, from 1707-13, belonged to financial and not monetary history. This is a curious decision since the available evidence suggests there was more monetary experimentation and innovation during the second than the first period. In this paper I show that during the War of the Spanish Succession, Bank and Treasury worked together to make Exchequer bills a new kind of money. I show why this was necessary, how the two institutions went about the project, and why it eventually failed.


Department of Economics, University of Regina


"Riding a wave: the Company's role in the South Sea Bubble". Economic History Review, forthcoming

"'The Folly of Particulars': the political economy of the South Sea Bubble". Financial History Review 19.2 (2012):1-23

"Fictitious Cash": English Public Finance and Paper Money, 1689-97. In Christopher Fauske and Ivar McGrath (eds.), Money, power and print: interdisciplinary studies on the British financial revolution (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 2008), pp. 70-114

"Smith on Teleology: a Reply to Alvey", History of Economics Review 40 (2004):145-49

"'The Ruine of their Diana': Lowndes, Locke and the Bankers", History of Political Economy 36.3 (2004):533-56

"Reading the Wealth of Nations in Context: rethinking the canon of mid-18th Century British Political Economy". In E. Forget & S. Peart (eds.), Reflections on the classical canon in economics (Routledge, 2001)

"The Role of Teleology in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations", History of Economics Review 31 (Winter 2000):14-29

"The Decay of Trade: the Politics of Economic Theory in Eighteenth-Century Britain", Journal of the History of Economic Thought 18 (1996):319-46

Charles Larkin

Session II, The rise of the fiscal central bank: contemporary lessons in central banking for economic historians


Unconventional monetary policy (i.e. quantitative easing, forward guidance, outright monetary transactions) has changed the face of central banking since the beginning of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). There has always been a tension between the fiscal and monetary dimensions of central banking. In this paper I explain the developments in current central bank policy, illustrating the differences between the pre and post-GFC approaches with special attention to the fiscal and public policy aspects of central bank decisions. Through this I attempt to open a wider discussion on the aims of central banking from a policy-informed perspective, presenting an analytical framework for historians to use while investigating the evolution of central banks. The evolution of central banks has created analytical challenges for political science as well as economics but has not been fully investigated by historians. The tools presented in this paper will allow the historian to understand the theory and practice of central banking before applying their own methods.


Lecturer in Economics and Finance, Cardiff Metropolitan University; Research Associate, Trinity College School of Business, University of Dublin


What if Ireland Defaults?. Ed. with Brian Lucey and Constantin Gurdgiev. Blackrock: Orpen Press, 2012

Numerous articles in The Irish Times, The Sunday Tribune, The Sunday Business Post and Public Affairs Ireland

Regular commentator on RTÉ Pat Kenny, RTÉ's This Week, RTÉ Primetime, RTÉ Morning Ireland, TV3 Nightly News with Vincent Browne and Newstalk's Talking History regarding matters of the Irish economy, the IMF and the future of the US dollar and the parallels between now and the Great Depression

Presentations to the Federal Reserve, the Dublin Economic Workshop Kenmare Policy Conference, and several international economic and financial conferences

John Levin



History Department, University of Southampton

Research Interests

John is a PhD student at the University of Southampton, writing a thesis on the debtor sanctuaries of London, circa 1670 to 1724. He has previously studied the Great Recoinage and the coin clippers for his BA dissertation, and is interested in the application of text mining technologies to the statutes and economic tracts of the Financial Revolution. For an example of his work, see "Mapping Machines: Transformations of the Petersburg Text" (with Dr Sarah Young), in "The Spatial Turn in Literary Studies", Primerjalna književnost (Comparative Literature) 36.2 (2013).

Eoin Magennis



Strategy and Policy division, InterTradeIreland, Newry


County Armagh and the Irish Revolution, 1912-1923 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, forthcoming)

“Charles Lucas and Patriot politics in mid-eighteenth-century Ireland”. Irish Journal and Medical Science, special supplement (2014)

“The Irish parliament and the regulatory impulse, 1692-1800: the case of the coal trade”. Parliamentary History 33 (2014)

“Frank Aiken (1898-1922): family and early years”. In Stephen Kelly and Bryce Evans (eds), Frank Aiken: Nationalist and Internationalist (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2014)

With Katy Hayward, “The business of building peace: Cross-border business cooperation in Ireland”. Irish Political Studies (Jan 2014)

“Devolution in everyday life: the case of cross-border commerce”. In Cillian McGrattan and Elizabeth Meehan (eds), Everyday Life since Devolution in Northern Ireland (Manchester, 2013)

“Garret Fitzgerald and cross-border cooperation”. Journal of Cross Border Studies 7 (2011)

New Perspectives on the Penal Laws: Eighteenth-Century Ireland. Special Issue No 1, co-edited with John Bergin, Lesa Ní Mhunghaile and Patrick Walsh, (Dublin, 2011)

"Regulating the market: parliament, corn and bread in eighteenth-century Ireland". In Michael Brown and Sean Donlon (eds.), The boundaries of the law (Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2011)

"Clubs and societies in eighteenth-century Belfast". In James Kelly and Martyn Powell (eds.), Clubs and societies in eighteenth-century Ireland (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2010)

With Steve MacFeely and Aidan Gough, "Cross-Border Shopping in Ireland: addressing the myths". Journal of Cross Border Studies 5 (2010)

"Money, Banks and Politics in Ireland in the 1730s". In Charles Ivar McGrath and Chris Fauske (eds.), Money, Power and Print: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Financial Revolution in the British Isles (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008)

"The Presbyterian revolutions in South Ulster, 1690-1780". Seanchas Ard Mhacha 21:2 (2007)

"The Hearts of Steel and Agrarian Crowds in the Armagh/Down Borderland in 1772". In A.F. Blackstock and Eoin Magennis (eds.), Politics and Political Culture in Britain and Ireland: Essays in Tribute to Peter Jupp (Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation, 2007)

With Michael Kennedy, "North/South agenda setting in the 1960s and 1990s: Plus ça change?". Journal of Cross Border Studies in Ireland 2 (2007):34-53

"A Land of Milk and Honey: the Physico-Historical Society (1744-1752) and the Improvement of Ireland", Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy section C, 103 (2003)

The Irish Political System, 1740-1765. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000

Crowds in Ireland, 1720-1920 (ed. with Peter Jupp). Houndsmills: Palgrave, 2000

"Coal, Corn and Canals: the Dispersal of Public Moneys, 1695-1712". In David Hayton (ed.), The Irish Parliament in the Eighteenth Century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001)

"A Presbyterian Insurrection: Reconsidering the Hearts of Oak Disturbances of July 1763". Irish Historical Studies21 (1999)

C. Ivar McGrath

Welcoming remarks and orientation

Session II, Financial necessity is the mother of fiscal invention: innovation, imitation and "banking against the grain" in Ireland, 1660-1783


The aim of this paper is to assess the reasons for the absence of a national bank in Ireland until 1783 and the concomitant history of paper currency in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. While it has been argued in recent years that Ireland fits within certain parameters of the British Financial Revolution and fiscal-military state paradigms, two key areas in which this hypothesis seems to fall down are those regarding national banks and associated paper currency instruments. By examining in detail the reasons for the failure of various proposals for a public-style bank in Ireland and assessing the alternative paper currency instruments that emerged in the absence of such a bank issuing paper money, this paper will ultimately argue that Ireland’s place within the broader British Financial Revolution and fiscal-military state paradigms was predicated upon moments of immediate necessity and was suited to circumstances particular to Ireland, which included delaying for many decades the introduction of a national bank and a regulated paper currency.


School of History and Archives, University College Dublin


"Securing the Hanoverian Succession in Ireland: Jacobites, Money and Men, 1714–16". Parliamentary History 33 (2014):140-59

"Late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century governance and the viceroyalty". In Peter Gray and Olwen Purdue (eds.), The Irish Lord Lieutenancy, c. 1541-1922 (Dublin: UCD Press, 2012), pp. 43-65

Ireland and Empire, 1692-1770 (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2012)

"'The Public Wealth is the Sinew, the Life, of every Public Measure': the Creation and Maintenance of a National Debt in Ireland, 1716-45". In D. Carey and C. Finlay (eds.), The Empire of Credit: The Financial Revolution in the British Atlantic World, 1700-1800 (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2011), pp. 171-208

"Ireland and the State Papers, 1603-1714". In State Papers Online, Part IV: The Stuarts: James to Anne, 1603 – 1714: State Papers Foreign, Ireland; and Registers of the Privy Council (Andover: Gale / Cengage Learning, 2011)

"Waging War: The Irish Military Establishment and the British Empire, 1688-1763". In William Mulligan and Brendan Simms (eds.), The Primacy of Foreign Policy in British History, 1660-2000: How Strategic concerns Shaped modern Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp 102-18

"Money, Politics and Power: The Financial Legislation of the Irish Parliament". In D. W. Hayton, James Kelly and John Bergin (eds.), The Eighteenth-Century Composite State: Representative Institutions in Ireland and Europe, 1689-1800 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp 21-43

"The Irish Parliament". In Clyve Jones (ed.), A Short History of Parliament (Boydell & Brewer, 2009), pp 321-38

People, Politics and Power: Essays on Irish History 1660-1850 in Honour of James I. McGuire. Edited with James Kelly and John McCafferty (Dublin: UCD Press, 2009)

"Alan Brodrick and the Speakership of the Irish House of Commons, 1703-4". In Kelly, McCafferty and McGrath (eds.), People, Politics and Power (Dublin: UCD Press, 2009), pp. 70-93

"The 'Union' Representation of 1703 in the Irish House of Commons: a case of mistaken identity?". Eighteenth-Century Ireland 23 (2008):11-35

Money, Power and Print: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Financial Revolution in the British Isles. Edited with Christopher Fauske (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008)

"The Irish Experience of 'Financial Revolution', 1660-1760". In McGrath and Fauske (eds.), Money, Power and Print (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008), pp. 157-88

"Government, parliament and the constitution: the reinterpretation of Poynings' Law, 1692-1714". Irish Historical Studies 35 (2006-7):160-72

Converts and Conversion in Ireland, 1650-1850. Edited with Michael Brown and T. P. Power (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005)

"The provisions for conversion in the penal laws, 1695-1750". In Converts and Conversion in Ireland, 1650-1850. Ed. Michael Brown, C. I. McGrath, and T. P. Power (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005), pp. 35-59

"English Ministers, Irish Politicians and the Making of a Parliamentary Settlement in Ireland, 1692-5". English Historical Review cxix (June 2004):585-613.

"Parliament, People, and other Possibilities," Eighteenth-Century Ireland 17 (2002):157-66

"Parliamentary Additional Supply: the Development and Use of Regular Short-term Taxation in the Irish Parliament, 1692-1716," Parliamentary History 20 (2001):27-54.

"Central Aspects of the Eighteenth-Century Constitutional Framework in Ireland: the Government Supply Bill and Biennial Parliamentary Sessions, 1715-82," Eighteenth-Century Ireland 16 (2001):9-34

The Making of the Eighteenth-Century Irish Constitution: Government, Parliament and the Revenue, 1692-1714(Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000)

"Securing the Protestant Interest: Policy, Politics and Parliament in Ireland in the Aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, 1690-95". In Thomas Bartlett (ed.), History and Environment (Dublin: UCD, 1998), pp. 70-81

"Securing the Protestant Interest: the Origins and Purpose of the Penal Laws of 1695," Irish Historical Studies 30 (1996-7):25-46

Jenny Moody



Independent Researcher

Research Interests

Joseph Harris, King’s Assay-master at the Royal Mint

Peter Moody



Independent Researcher

Research Interests

Joseph Harris, King’s Assay-master at the Royal Mint (see "A New Review of Joseph Harris's Essay upon Money and Coins); William Wilberforce

Anne Murphy

Chair, Session II


School of Humanities, University of Hertfordshire


"Demanding credible commitment: public reactions to the failures of the early financial revolution". Economic History Review 66 (2013):178-197

"Financial markets: the limits of economic regulation in early modern England". In P. Stern and C. Wennerlind (eds.), Mercantilism reimagined: political economy in early modern Britain and its empire (Oxford, 2013), pp. 263-281

"Learning the business of banking: the recruitment and training of the Bank of England's first tellers". Business History 52 (2010):150-68

The Origins of English Financial Markets: Investment and Speculation Before the South Sea Bubble (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

"Trading options before Black-Scholes: a study of the market in late seventeenth-century London". Economic History Review 62, S1 (2009):8-30

"'Come vanno i titoli?' Informazione e investimenti a Londra alla fine del XVII secolo" Quaderni Storici XLI (2007):133-154

"Dealing with uncertainty: managing personal investment in the early English national debt". History 91 (2006):200-217

"Lotteries in the 1690s: investment or gamble?" Financial History Review 12 (2005):227-246

Nuno Palma

Session IV, Danger to the Old Lady of Threadneedle Street? The Bank of England, Warfare and the State in Britain, 1694-1819 (co-written with Patrick K. O'Brien)


During the long eighteenth century the Bank of England supported state-building by lending unprecedented amounts to the English state. An unintended consequence was the expansion of financial intermediation and the money supply. In this paper we show how, when, why, and how much, did the Bank of England lend to the state. We show that since the foundation of the Bank in 1694, periods of warfare were always statistically associated with higher degrees of lending and consequent increases in a broad measure of the money supply, but the effect was moderate until 1789. While periods of warfare were always associated with increased lending, there were severe constraints to the amount that could be lent until the last decade of the eighteenth century. After this date, however, the increase was dramatic. As a direct response to the French revolution, from 1789 to 1800 direct advances from the Bank of England to the state led per capita M2 to increase from £5 to £8 in real terms, while contemporaneous population growth meant per capita currency (M0) fell in absolute terms from £4 to £3 over the same period. We further show that upon suspension of convertibility by the Bank in 1797 the market did not crash, and in fact following a short plateau direct financing continued at a renewed unprecedented pace. Our statistical analysis is supported by a detailed narrative analysis of the facts. This historical episode is suggestive of the merit of discretionary and unconventional monetary policy during exceptional periods, showing such robust responses do not lead to future commitment problems when supported by an appropriate set of institutions.


Department of Economic History, London School of Economics


(with Leonor Costa and Jaime Reis). "The Great Escape? The Contribution of the Empire to Portugal’s Economic Growth, 1500-1800". Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Working Papers in Economic History (2013)

Book review of Costa, Lains and Miranda, História Económica de Portugal (1143-2010). e-Journal of Portuguese History 10.2 (2012)

(with J. Cardoso). "The Science of Things Generally?". In A. Witztum and F. Cowell (eds.), Lionel Robbins's Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science: 75th Anniversary Conference Proceedings (London: London School of Economics, STICERD), pp. 389-404

"History of Economics or a Selected History of Economics?" Journal of the History of Economic Thought 30.1 (2008):93-104

Helen Julia Paul



Economics Division, University of Southampton, Southampton, England


"Archibald Hutcheson's reputation as an economic thinker: his pamphlets, the National Debt, and the South Sea Bubble". Essays in Economic and Business History 30 (2012):93-104

"The maintenance of British slaving forts in Africa: the activities of joint-stock companies and the Royal Navy". In R. Torres and S. Conway (eds.), (Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag, 2011), pp. 213-36

The South Sea Bubble: an economic history of its origins and consequences (Routledge, 2011)

"Royal Africa Company". In Encyclopaedia of Business in Today's World (Sage, 2009)

"Joint-Stock Companies as the Sinews of War: The South Sea and Royal African Companies". In R. Torres Sanchez (ed.), War, State and Development: Military Fiscal States in the Eighteenth Century (EUNSA, 2008)

"British Asiento Slave-Traders and Conflict during the Triangular Trade". In Joám Evans Pim, Óscar Crespo Argibay and Bárbara Kristensen (eds.), Essays on Atlantic Studies: Rediscovering the Atlantic Maze (Galicia: IGESIP, 2006)

"What Economic History Means". In P. Hudson (ed.), Living Economic and Social History (Economic History Society, 2001)

Natalie Roxburgh

Session III, "A tale of two currencies": narrating money in the wake of the financial revolution


In the latter half of the eighteenth-century, objects were often personified and cast as characters in novel-like texts, which scholars have called “it-narratives.” Many of these stories, which share features (characterization, plot devices, intertextual references) with other works of eighteenth-century fiction, use monetary objects as the central character-narrator. While scholars have already suggested that “it-narratives” arise from a more developed world of commerce, this paper approaches two key it-narratives – one on gold which morphs into various forms and one on a Bank-of-England-issued note – to examine the relationship between literary production and the development of the English public credit system more specifically. Comparing narratives about two different types of currency allows one to examine changing attitudes about money brought about by the financial revolution during and after the Seven Year’s War. Chrysal (1760-65) has a somber and critical tone, linking the circulation of gold to the corruption of its holder (and even the state). Published a decade later, The Adventures of a Banknote(1770-71), is a playful satire that refrains from moralizing on money; rather, the banknote circulates from person to person allowing the reader to imagine a whole public. Rendering contemporary debates on money and public credit through the tools of emergent literary technique asks us to consider what the contemporary reader would have gotten out them. Both texts were very popular within the reading public, and their popularity suggests that they not only reflected the public's perception of public credit but probably helped to produce it, as well.


Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Fiction Meets Science), University of Oldenburg


“Rethinking gender and virtue through Richardson’s domestic accounting,” Eighteenth-Century Fiction 24.3 (Spring 2012): 403-429

“The rise of public credit and the Eighteenth-Century English novel”. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis. New Brunswick: N.J. Rutgers University, May 2011

Peter Solar



Vesuvius College, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Université Saint-Louis—Bruxelles


"The Great Famine was No Ordinary Subsistence Crisis”. In E.M. Crawford (ed.), Famine: the Irish Experience, 900-1900 (Edinburgh: John Donald,1989), 112-33

“Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution”. Economic History Review 48 (1995):1-22

“Shipping and Irish Economic Development in the Nineteenth Century”. Economic History Review 61 (2006):717-742

“European Industry, 1700-1870” (with Stephen Broadberry and Rainer Fremdling). Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte (2008) 2:141-171

“London Agricultural Prices, 1770-1913 (with Jan Tore Klovland). Economic History Review 64 (2011):72-87

“Opening to the East: Shipping between Europe and Asia, 1770-1830”. Journal of Economic History73(2013):625-661

“Land under pressure: the value of Irish land in a period of rapid population growth, 1730-1844” (with Luc Hens). Agricultural History Review 61(2013):40-61

Stephen Timmons

Session V, Before the financial revolution: economic thought and the West Country during the Exclusion Crisis


As was true throughout the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, war spurred fiscal and other economic innovations. Charles II’s attempts to reenter the Franco-Dutch War, (unilaterally/privately) on the French side through at least 1676 and (publicly) on the Dutch side after 1677, led first to tensions with the long-running Cavalier Parliament during its fifteenth and sixteenth sessions, then to Commons’ impeachment of Lord Treasurer Danby in the seventeenth session, and finally to that Parliament’s dissolution early in 1679. The three parliaments that followed, the Exclusion Parliaments of 1679 - 1681, only exacerbated the split between Crown and Parliament. In the vacuum between the king’s demands and parliamentary intransigence, three authors, although not from the West Country themselves, suggested improvements for the agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and fiscal and financial sectors of the Devon and Cornwall economies that would also have a positive impact on the development of the national economy—John Collins, A Plea for the Bringing in of Irish Cattle (1680) and Salt and Fishery (1682), Andrew Yarranton, England’s Improvement (1681), and William Carter, (1681). Significantly, Yarranton’s tract was subtitled “to out-do the Dutch without fighting, to pay debts without moneys.” Their thought cannot be easily typified through modern categories of macroeconomics or microeconomics, or even financial or behavioral economics. Some of their proposals suggested technical (not necessarily technological) changes that would increase productivity. Others addressed fundamental alterations of existing laws, substantial changes in the practices of government regulation, or significant modifications or extensions of political ideology. Still others sprang from economic interpretations of contemporary philosophical or literary debates, as characterized the era before the formal establishment of economics as an intellectual discipline. Heightened political tensions during the Exclusion Crisis may have given their thought a partisan cast that the authors did not originally intend. In any case, the end of the Third Exclusion Parliament ended the national debate on economic and fiscal improvements as the Crown retrenched its authority on the political and religious landscape, and that debate would not resume until the Revolution of 1688 and the Nine Years War, with the advent of the Financial Revolution.


Humanities Department, Columbus State Community College


"The Hearth Tax and Customs Duties in the West Country". In Chris Fauske and C. Ivar McGrath (eds.), Money, Power, and Print: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Financial Revolution in the British Isles (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008 forthcoming)

"Witchcraft and Rebellion in Late Seventeenth-Century Devon", Journal of Early Modern History 10.4 (December 2006):297-330

"From Persecution to Toleration in the West Country, 1672-1692", Historian (Phi Alpha Theta) 68.3 (Fall 2006):461-88

"The Customs Service in the West Country, 1671-1692", Mariner's Mirror (May 2006)

"Executions Following Monmouth's Rebellion: A Missing Link", Historical Research (May 2003)

Patrick Walsh

Chair, Session V


Irish Research Council / European Commission Research Fellow, School of History and Archives, University College Dublin


"Irish money on the London market: Ireland, the Anglo-Irish and the South Sea Bubble of 1720". Eighteenth-Century Life 38.3 (2014):forthcoming

The South Sea Bubble and Ireland: money, banking and investment, 1690-1721 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2014 [in press])

"Review of periodical literature published in 2012 [on British and Irish economic history, 1700-1850]". Economic History Review 67.1 (2014):261-68

"The Fiscal State in Ireland, 1691-1769". Historical Journal 56.3 (2013):629-656

"The Bubble on the Periphery: Scotland and the South Sea Bubble". Scottish Historical Review 91.231 (2012):106-24

The Making of the Irish Protestant Ascendancy: the Life of William Conolly, 1689-1729 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2010)

"Free movement of people? Responses to emigration from Ireland, 1718-30". Journal of Irish and Scottish Studies3.1 (2010):221-36

"Club Life in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries". In James Kelly & Martyn Powell (eds.), Clubs and Societies in Eighteenth-Century Ireland, 1690-1800 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2010), pp. 36-52

"The Sin of With-Holding Tribute: Contemporary Pamphlets and the Professionalization of the Irish Revenue Service in the Early Eighteenth Century". Eighteenth Century Ireland: Iris an dá chultúr 21 (2006):48-65

Lina Weber

Session III, Trust and dependency: the Dutch discourse on British public credit, ca. 1760-1780


This paper will deal with the Dutch discourse on British public credit that can be found in various sources, from prints and poems to pamphlets and translations. Authors of this debate tried to construct a “dependency” of Dutch stability on the British financial market in order to destroy the investors’ “trust” in Britain, the basis of any credit relationship. This discourse will be linked it political developments and Dutch investments in British government funds from ca. 1760 until around 1780, a period of change in Dutch investment behaviour.


Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen, Capaciteitsgroep Geschiedenis, Universiteit van Amsterdam


Lina Weber studied history and German language and literature at the Universities of Heidelberg and Edinburgh and is currently working on a Ph.D. thesis on the British and Dutch discourses on public credit in the eighteenth century, under the supervision of Wyger Velema at the University of Amsterdam. Since May 2013 she has also worked as an editor for a project on the collected works of Isaak Iselin at the University of Basle.

Koji Yamamoto

Session IV, "I invest, you speculate, they gamble": James Brydges, the First Duke of Chandos, during the South Sea Bubble


“Hopes, [and] Expectations,” Defoe declared a year before the South Sea Bubble, were crucial for understanding the dynamics of the stock market. The 1720 Bubble has long been enshrined as the key event in the emergence of modern financial capitalism. Newspapers frequently describe it that way; historians of economics such as Dale et al, and Shea have been debating whether or not it was a “rational” bubble. Not everyone assumes this perspective. Scholars like Hoppit, Harris, and Nicholson have examined economic, legal, and cultural aspects of the Bubble. Yet they have focused on repercussions of the financial bubble, and left the analysis of the Bubble's growth largely to economists. Consequently, we know relatively little about contemporary values and perceptions that might have shaped speculative investment during the Bubble period. Even though economic historians such as Muldrew, Glaisyer, and McGowen have reminded us that commercial transactions were charged with social and even emotional values we rarely associate with them today, their insights have not been fully tested for the embryonic financial market. This paper proposes to contribute to this larger work by focusing on financial accounts and letters written by one of the largest investors during the Bubble period: James Brydges the first Duke of Chandos (1674-1744).


British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of History, King's College London


“Piety, profit, and public service in the early financial revolution,” English Historical Review, 126 (August, 2011), 806-834

“Reformation and the distrust of the projector in the Hartlib Circle,” Historical Journal, 55 (June, 2012), 375-397

“Without imposition: economic privileges and the protection of private rights in England before the Glorious Revolution,” in Guillaume Garnar (ed.), Die Ökonomie des Privilegs, Westeuropa, 16-19 Jahrhundert (Frankfurt: Klostermann, 2014), 181-198

Vlad Glaveanu and Koji Yamamoto, “Bridging history and social psychology: what, how and why,” in Vlad Glaveanu and Koji Yamamoto (eds.), Bridging History and Social Psychology, special issue of Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science (Dec. 2012)